An employee who (a) performs some work which is different from that of the employee’s subordinates; and (b) has the responsibility to authorize actions like:

  1. hire, transfer, suspend, promote, demote, dismiss, discipline other employees, and address employee grievances; and
  2. assign, direct, and conduct performance reviews of the work.

The exercise of this authority and responsibility isn’t merely routine or clerical, but requires using independent judgement.