Unfair, Deceptive, or Abuse Acts and Practices: The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which regulates the consumer finance market, usually pluralizes the term—”UDAAPs”—when referring to these acts and practices collectively; others forgo the “s.” Either way, the CFPB decides what counts as a UDAAP and what doesn’t, based on the agency’s assessment of how the act or practice in question affects consumers.

The idea of UDAAP blossomed out of the 2008–2009 financial crisis. The term “unfair, deceptive, or abusive” appears 12 times in the text of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, primarily under Title X, which established the CFPB. Indeed, protecting consumers from UDAAPs has been a core objective of the CFPB since day 1.